Sure, colorful animals are beautiful, but in the natural world, color is way more than just an aesthetic. Learn how color is created and plays a crucial role in the day-to-day life—and survival—of countless species from scientists who study birds, frogs, and butterfly wings. It’s easy to identify butterflies by their wing colors and patterns, but how are these intricate designs formed? Erick Bayala, PhD student at the University of Chicago, studies the role of genes in determining these patterns: when and where they’re expressed and how they get translated into the stunning colors you see in adult butterflies. The Gouldian finch of Northern Australia is an amazingly colorful bird, with wild populations made up of individuals with either a red or black head. Hear from Dr. Simon Griffith of Macquarie University on how these birds differ from each other beyond their color and how that’s provided insight into their persistence over evolutionary time. The strawberry poison dart frog found in Panama’s Bocas del Toro Archipelago displays some of the natural world’s most brilliant and variable skin colors. Dr. Yusan Yang, postdoctoral researcher at Washington University in St. Louis, talks about the various functions of their colors, from warning potential predators of toxins and fighting off rivals to finding a suitable mate.